AMPHIBIANS of Bangladesh

-Professor Ghazi  S.M. Asmat, Ph.D.

Dept. of Zoology
Univ. of Chittagong

The amphibians are the earliest land vertebrates. They evolved during the Devonian Period, some 400 million years ago and flourished during the Carboniferous time of Palaeozoic Era. Amphibia is the first group of tetrapod animal among the vertebrates, which made transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. Therefore, they developed adaptations that helped them to spend parts of their lives out of water. These included adaptations to their lungs, gills (in larva), bones, and skin.

The word Amphibia comes from the Greek amphi = both + bios = life, meaning “both lives”. Most adult amphibians are better adapted to life on land than in water, while their larval phases are entirely aquatic. For much of their lives, larval amphibians bear little resemblance to their adult forms. Then something miraculous happens. In a matter of weeks or even days, the once fish-like larvae metamorphose into terrestrial, air-breathing quadrupeds! These quadruped (four-legged) vertebrates are very special in the sense that:

  1. They can survive both on land and in water.
  2. Most amphibians are born with gills, and soon after, as they become an adult, they develop lungs.
  3. They have a special ability that most animals do not have, that is to be able to breathe through their thin skin, i.e., their skin is permeable respiratory gases.
  4. They have three chambered heart.
  5. Amphibians are ectotherms (cold-blooded), using the environment to regulate their body temperature. Thus, pollutants can enter their body readily through the skin, which makes them especially sensitive to environmental changes. Therefore, the states of health of amphibians can give us a lot of information about the surrounding environment.
  6. Most species are secretive and, in many cases, nocturnal.
  7. Some amphibians are territorial, and some use olfactory cues to mark their territory and to recognize other individuals of their species.
  8. All amphibians are carnivorous as adults, and the feeding response of many species is elicited by the movement of prey. Tadpoles of most species of anurans are filter-feeding herbivores.

 The living amphibia are further divided into three orders known as:

1. Ggymnophiona or Caecilians (apoda = amphibia who lack limbs; example- Ichthyophis).

2. Caudata (urodela = amphibia who posses tail; example – Salamanders and Newts).

3. Salienta (anura = amphibia who lack tail in adult form; example – Frogs and Toads).

Amphibians (caecilians, frogs, and salamanders) are a conspicuous component of the world’s vertebrate fauna (Frost, et al., 2006). They currently include 6433 (Gymnophiona or caecialians 174; Caudata or salamanders 580; and Anura or toads and frogs 5679 species) recognized species (Frost, 2009).

 

Cool Frog Facts

(Encyclopedia of Earth, 2008; Kriger, 2009)

  • How many amphibian species are there?
    There are 6,433 amphibian species, of which 5,679 are anurans (frogs and toads), 580 are caudates (newts and salamanders), and 174 are gymnophiones (caecilians).
  • What’s a caecilian?
    Caecilians are amphibians that lack limbs. They look a bit like earthworms or snakes and can grow up to 1.5 m (5 ft) in length. As they generally live underground, they are the most under-studied group of amphibians.
  • Do all amphibian species have tadpoles?
    No. Some caecilians give birth to live young and some salamanders have larvae that essentially resemble the adult stage, but with external gills. There are many terrestrial frog species that emerge as froglets directly from the egg, bypassing the tadpole stage altogether.
  • How long have amphibians been around?
    Amphibians are the oldest land vertebrates. Ichthyostega was an amphibian species that lived in Greenland 362 million years ago.
  • Gastric brooders.
    The Northern and Southern Gastric Brooding frogs lived in Australia could actually shut down their gastric juices while rearing their young inside their stomachs! Unfortunately, these frogs vanished within a few years of being discovered by scientists.
  • Smallest frog.
    The smallest frog is the critically endangered Cuban frog Eleutherodactylus Iberia, measure only 10 mm (0.4 in) when fully grown.
  • Smallest toad.
    Izecksohn’s Toad from southeastern Brazil reaches full size at only 10mm (0.4 in).
  • Largest frog.
    The world’s largest frog is the Goliath Frog, which lives in western Africa. They can grow to be over 30 cm (1 ft) long, and weigh over 3 kg (6.6 lbs).
  • Marsupial frogs.
    When emerge, froglets of marsupial frog lives in Australia crawl into the father’s two hip-pockets, where they hang out for several weeks.
  • How do amphibians breathe?
    Tadpoles have gills like fish, and most adult frogs have lungs like yours. However, amphibians have permeable skin that allows them to absorb both water and oxygen directly from the environment, right through their skin.
  • What are the big warts behind a toad’s eyes?
    Those are the parotoid glands, which hold a cocktail of toxic secretions. Since toads are pretty slow they need to defend themselves from predators.
  • Frozen frogs.
    North American Wood frog lives above the Arctic Circle. Wood frogs are adapted to cold winters being able to survive a deep freeze: Their breathing, blood flow, and heartbeat stop, and ice crystals form beneath their skin.
  • Future cure for AIDS?
    Skin secretions from at least three species of Australian frogs (the Green Tree frog, the Southern Orange-eyed Tree frog, and the Green-Eyed Tree frog) can completely inhibit HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
  • Poisonous newt.
    One adult rough-skinned newt contains enough poison to kill 25,000 white mice, or a few humans.
  • Frogs in outer space.
    Frogs first jumped in outer space in 1970 when NASA put two bullfrogs in orbit as a test of the effects of weightlessness on the inner ear.
  • Stomach washing.
    When some frogs eat something poisonous, they throw up their entire stomach! The stomach actually protrudes from the mouth, and they wipe it clean with their front legs.

 

Why frogs are important

(Sargeant et al., 1993; Kriger, 2009)

Frogs are the most threatened group of animals on Earth. Nearly one-third of the world’s amphibian species are threatened with extinction, and at least 150 species have already completely disappeared in recent decades. Unless we act quickly, frog species will continue to disappear, resulting in irreversible consequences to Earth’s ecosystems and to humans.

Ecological Importance

Frogs are an integral part of the food web .Tadpoles keep waterways clean by feeding on algae, and have significant impact in nutritional cycling. Adult frogs eat large quantities of insects, including disease vectors that can transmit fatal illnesses to humans (i.e. mosquitoes/malaria), and many agricultural pests. Adult amphibians are the best biological pest controllers. Frogs also provide food for a variety of predators (including dragonflies, fish, snakes, birds, fishing cats and even monkeys). Thus, the disappearance of frog populations disturbs an intricate food web, and results in negative impacts that cascade through the ecosystem.

From the ecological perspective, amphibians are regarded as good ecological indicators. Due to high degree of sensitivity, either during tadpole stage or as adults, they respond to very slight change in the environment. Most frogs require suitable habitat in both the terrestrial and aquatic environments, and have permeable skin that can easily absorb toxic chemicals. These traits make frogs especially susceptible to environmental disturbances, and thus frogs are considered accurate indicators of environmental stress: the health of frogs is thought to be indicative of the health of the biosphere as a whole. This should serve as an alarm call to humans that something is drastically wrong in the environment. Such responses have been used to indicate habitat fragmentation, ecosystem stress, impact of pesticides, and various anthropogenic activities.

Human welfare

In human cultures, amphibians featured through ages in the form of poetry, songs or stories. Amphibians have been a good food source and Bangladesh earned US$ 26  million by exporting forelegs during 1988-1993 (it is completely banned now). This has resulted in increased insect pest population. They are exploited as model organism in ecological, embryological, physiological and genetic research.

Frogs produce a wide array of skin secretions, many of which have significant potential to improve human health through their use as pharmaceuticals. Amines, alkaloids and polypeptides are found in skins of amphibians and have pharmacological importance. Epibatidine, a skin extract from Epipedobates tricolor, a south American frog blocks the pain 200 times more effectively than morphine.  Poison dart frogs of Dendrobatidae family have highly toxic skin compounds that are smeared to arrowheads to kill larger animals.  The skin secretions of various tropical anurans are known to have hallucinogenic effects and effects on the central nervous and respiratory systems in humans. Some secretions have been found to contain magainin, a substance that provides a natural antibiotic effect. Approximately 10% of Nobel Prizes in physiology and medicine have resulted from investigations that used frogs.

Global amphibian decline

(AmphibiaWeb, 2009; Kriger, 2009)

From the past two decades, amphibians have gained much importance for the declines in their population worldwide. There are clear evidence for such declines from North, Central and South America, Europe, Africa and Australia. The threat to the amphibians can be attributed to changes in physical environment and biotic environment. Changes in the physical environment include Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation, climate change, acid rain, pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers, where as the biotic environment includes, fragmentation, demographic effects (barriers for the movements of one population to other), genetic effects (fragmentation enhances isolation, isolation emphasises inbreeding, inbreeding results in stress, stress reduces viable population), diseases and synergistic interactions. The influence of these factors operates at two levels, either singly and/or synergistically.  

Factors   Effect

Changes in Physical

 Environment

UV-B radiation UV-B damages DNA and/or kills cells, causing egg mortality, lesions, and increased susceptibility to disease and low pH.
Climate change The changes in the climate due to global warming can lead to decreased depth of pond water and increased intensity of UV-B radiation. This ultimately reduces the immune system. Hence they will be more prone to diseases.
Acid precipitation and soil Toxins create barriers to dispersal and cause high egg and larval mortality.
Pesticide, Fertilizer and Chemical contamination Toxins cause direct mortality of eggs and adults, mimic endocrine hormones, reduce the prey

Changes in Biological

Environment

Habitat modification, fragmentation Deforestation and agriculture; wetlands are drained and filled. Roads, introduced species, and low pH dissect habitats, creating barriers to dispersal.
Introduced species Introduced predators, prey on/or compete with native amphibians.
Over-Exploitation Amphibians are removed form the wild and sold internationally as food, as pets, or for medicinal and biological supply markets
Disease Disease often causes death in amphibians; what made amphibians susceptible to disease is often unknown.
Deformities There has been a recent and widespread increase of deformities (or malformations) in natural populations of amphibians; this is now perceived as a major environmental problem.
Biological interaction Uphill migration of birds and lizards with rise in cloud cover elevation
Synergisms Multiple factors can act together to cause mortality or sublethal effects.

 

WHAT CAN BE DONE TO SAVE AMPHIBIANS

Here are some other ways to reverse or stop Amphibian Declines:

  1. Minimize the use of fertilizers and pesticide on your yard, especially near wet areas.
  2. Plant native species.
  3. Maintain a vegetative buffer around wet areas.
  4. Support efforts to establish and protect natural areas.
  5. Recycle and think “Green” (don’t send that broken plastic to the landfill).
  6. Join a conservation organization.
  7. Educate yourself and others about frogs.
  8. Report frog die-offs or abnormalities to the veterinary officers.
  9. Create frog friendly habitats on your property with leaf or brush piles.
  10. Initiate captive breeding programs for endangered species in zoos.
  11. Reintroduction programs place amphibians back into wild habitats in the hope that new populations can be established.
  12. Remove the introduced species where they threaten frog species.

Bangladesh is located in South Asia, where part of one out of 34 biodiversity hotspot passes from the border of Sylhet through Chittagong Hill Tracts. It begins in eastern Bangladesh and then extends across north-eastern India, south of the Bramaputra River, to encompass nearly all of Myanmar, part of southern and western Yunnan Province in China, all of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Vietnam, the vast majority of Thailand and a small part of Peninsular Malaysia. The hotspot also covers the coastal lowlands of southern China (in southern Guangxi and Guangdong), as well as several offshore islands, such as Hainan Island (of China) in the South China Sea and the Andaman Islands (of India) in the Andaman Sea.  To qualify as a hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5 percent of the world’s total) as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat. The Indo-Burma Hotspot covers more than 2 million km² of tropical Asia and is still revealing its biological treasures. (Conservation International, 2007) Due to its unique geo-physical location, Bangladesh harbours composite fauna of various origins and affinities, hence characterized by an exceptionally rich biological diversity. Concerning the group of amphibians, this region was one of the first tropical areas of the world where taxonomic research was undertaken, mostly under the leadership of British zoologists (Dubois, 1999).

The task of understanding the evolution and ecological, morphological, and taxonomic diversity of amphibians is massive (Frost et al., 2006). The taxonomy of Bangladeshi amphibian fauna is still very unsatisfactory, especially when compared with that of most other regions of the world. After independence of our country, Husain and Rahman (1978) first published a list of 12 amphibians in Bangladesh. Later, Khan (1982) and Sarkar and Sarkar (1988) published list of 19 and 23 species of amphibians respectively in their checklists. Chowdhury (1996) identified at least 15, and Sarkar (1999) 13 amphibian species from Bangladesh. Eight species of anurans were identified by Reza et al. (2000) from the Sundarbans mangrove forest. Asmat et al. (2003) published a list of 17 amphibian species (mentioning three new country records) from Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Khan (2004) compiled a herpetofaunal checklist including 26 species of anurans (containing 11 species of doubtful occurrence). Asmat (2005) critically analysed the report of Global Amphibian Assessment 2004, made a review on 54 amphibian species many of which were listed not only by the above mentioned authors but also Frost (2002, 2004), Katebi (1982) and Ohler and Mallick (2002), and organizations, like IUCN 2004; IUCN Bangladesh 2000, 2003; AmphibiaWeb, 2003). In that review article Asmat (2005) reported three new country records. Asmat (2007a) enlisted 34 amphibian species (out of which six anurans were remained as genus level) in his checklist, and also opined that this region may contain additional or new species. Based on the collection, published documents and photographic data, Asmat (2007b) updated the list and confirmed as many as 37 species (three species remained as genus level) inhabit in Bangladesh. Rasel et al. (2007) reported four new country records of Fejervarya sp. from Bangladesh. Another unidentified species of Fejervarya was collected by SA Howlader (member of our Conservation Awareness Programme) from Barisal division, but before revealing its true identification the species (F. cancrivora_Mangrove Frog / Crab-eating Frog) was collected and published as a new record by Islam et al. (2008). However, considerable nomenclatural changes have occurred in amphibian systematics throughout the world at both the genus and species level. But due to lack of taxonomic revisions, such nomenclatural changes have not been carried out for Bangladeshi amphibians. Here, I made a record on the confirmed species (as of 1 October 2009) surviving in the forest fragments and wetlands in Bangladesh. I attempted to describe the morphological differences between the species so as to allow easier identification for the readers and further researchers. In addition, a few behavioral characteristics on each of them were also documented from various sources.

 1

Bangladesh is not rich in amphibian fauna because 93% of forest cover was removed due to unplanned forest management, dishonest conservationists and forest officers. At present only 35 species have been recorded under a single Order Anura, included in the families Bufonidae (2 spp.), Dicroglossidae (11 spp.), Megophryidae (2 spp.), Microhylidae (7 spp.), Ranidae (7 spp.) and Rhacophoridae (6 spp.). Out of these, fewer than half a dozen species of amphibians are commonly known, vast majority of amphibians are poorly known to us. As part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot., Chittagong and Sylhet divisions possess rich faunal diversity (out of 35 species, 31 species of amphibians are recorded from Chittagong division). The article provides information about how to identify the Bangladeshi species by simple description, to be familiar with any common frog living under a small bush, on a large tree or in a temporary or permanent wetland, and promoting public awareness on conservation of this group.

 

List of Bangladeshi amphibian fauna  

-A source of first confirmed record since independence

  1. “Bufo” stomaticus Lütken, 1864
    Nazrul Hoque in Khan, 2004
  2. Amolops marmoratus (Blyth, 1855)
    Asmat et. al., 2003
  3. Chiromantis simus (Annandale, 1915)
    Asmat et. al., 2003
  4. Chiromantis vittatus (Boulenger, 1887)
    MHKhan in Chakma, 2009
  5. Clinotarsus alticola (Boulenger, 1882)
    Dutta, 1997
  6. Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  7. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 1799)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  8. Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  9. Fejervarya cancrivora (Gravenhorst, 1829)
    Islam et. al., 2008
  10. Fejervarya nepalensis Dubois, 1975
    Rasel et. al., 2007
  11. Fejervarya pierrei (Dubois, 1975)
    Rasel et. al., 2007
  12. Fejervarya syhadrensis (Annandale, 1919)
    Rasel et. al., 2007
  13. Fejervarya teraiensis (Dubois, 1984)
    Rasel et. al., 2007
  14. Hoplobatrachus crassus (Jerdon, 1854)
    Asmat et. al., 2003
  15. Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  16. Humerana humeralis (Boulenger, 1887)
    Asmat, 2005
  17. Hylarana leptoglossa (Cope, 1868)
    Asmat et. al., 2003
  18. Hylarana nigrovittata (Blyth, 1856)
    Chakma, 2009
  19. Hylarana taipehensis (Van Denburgh, 1909)                                               Asmat, 2005
  20. Hylarana tytleri Theobald, 1868
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  21. Kalophrynus interlineatus (Blyth, 1855)
    Mahony and Reza, 2007
  22. Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  23. Kaloula taprobanica Parker, 1934
    Reza and Mahony, 2007
  24. Leptobrachium smithi Matsui, Nabhitabhata and Panha, 1999            Asmat, 2005
  25. Microhyla berdmorei (Blyth, 1856)
    Amat et.al., 2003
  26. Microhyla ornata (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  1. Microhyla rubra (Jerdon, 1854)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  2. Occidozyga borealis (Annandale, 1912)
    Asmat, 2005
  3. Occidozyga lima (Gravenhorst, 1829)
    Khan, 1998
  4. Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  5. Polypedates maculatus (Gray, 1830)
    Husain and Rahman, 1978
  6. Rhacophorus bipunctatus Ahl, 1927
    Chakma, 2007
  7. Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1858
    Chakma, 2009
  8. Uperodon globulosus (Günther, 1864)
    Khan, 1982
  9. Xenophrys parva (Boulenger, 1893)
    Asmat et. al., 2003

Taxonomic and distribution data were derived from literature surveys and personal observation. Information of some species was gathered from unpublished data as well as personal communications. The updated specific names were used in accordance with “Amphibian species of the world: An online reference” by Frost (2009). The species description and distribution are given below.

Order : ANURA Fischer von Waldheim, 1813

(Gr. a = without + ura = tail)

Members of Anura commonly known as frogs and toads having four limbs usually of unequal size; tail in larval form is lost in adult; nine or fewer presacral vertebrae (usually eight); and the three or four posterior to the sacrum are fused into a rod like structure called the urostyle. Out of 5,679 world species, we have 36 speces).

Family : BUFONIDAE Gray, 1825

Bufonids commonly known as toads, found in most temperate and tropical countries, absent in the poles, Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and most Pacific islands. They are characterized by oval tongue; rough and tuberculated skin; presence of parotoid gland behind head; horizontal pupil; absence of vomerine teeth; obtuse or T-shaped terminal phalanges of fingers and toes (Sarker et al., 1992; Chanda, 2002). Out of 528 world species, Bangladesh has only two species.

GenusBufo Laurent, 1768

Frost et al. (2006) suggested that Bufo stomaticus is not a member of the monophyletic taxon Bufo, but could not allocate this species to any of the other genera either, instead leaving this species in a non-taxon “Bufo” which they denoted as polyphyletic by placing the name in quotation marks. Presumably, as these taxa are studied they will be allocated to one or another of the existing genera.

 1. “Bufo” stomaticus Lütken, 1864

English name. Marbled Toad [Indo-Gangetic Toad]. Local name. Not known.

2 

Description. Large-sized toad (snout-vent length about 75 mm). Head broader having no cranial ridges. Parotoid glands large, flat and elliptical, not bean-shaped. Fingers free, toes nearly two-thirds webbed. Dorsal surface of body grey or olive, with flat tubercles and spiny warts. Ventral surface coarsely granulated. A row of white tubercles present along outer region of forearm. Juveniles light brown with darker marblings having a pale pinkish centre. Adult male has bright yellowish tint during breeding season. (Chanda, 2002; Daniel, 2002; Deuti and Bharati-Goswami, 1995).

Habitat and Ecology: Found in a wide variety of habitats including; open plains, grasslands, scrubland, forest, suitable agricultural land and human habitations. Adults hide under rocks and in crevices. It is a very adaptable species that may be found in houses. Breeding occurs in permanent and seasonal pools, seasonal streams and slow-flowing streams after sunset. The breeding season extends from June to September. Eggs are laid in the morning in two pale or yellowish green parallel translucent strings (Deuti and Bharati-Goswami, 1995; Stöck et al., 2004)

Distribution. In Bangladesh, the species has been reported from certain coastal islands and Sundarbans, Charlands in Jamuna River (Nazrul Hoque in Khan, 2004). Elsewhere: Afghanistan, ?Bhutan, ?China, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Nepal, Oman and Pakistan (Stöck et al., 2004).

 

Genus Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006

Members of Duttaphrynus are characterized by having skin with rough and spiny warts and tubercles; large and prominent parotoid glands; elliptical tongue; distinct tympanum; free fingers; half to two-thirds webbed toes; simple or dilated small-shaped fingers and toes tips; and obtuse or T-shaped terminal phalanges (Chanda, 2002).

2. Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)

English name. Asian Common Toad [Asian Toad]. Local name. Koono Bang, Koona Bang.

3

Description. Large toad (snout-vent length about 165 mm). Head broader with prominent cornified bony ridges. Parotoid glands kidney-shaped, elongate or swollen. Skin heavily tuberculated, bears many black spine-tipped warts, two longitudinal rows of large warts mid-dorsally, and smaller ones laterally. Ventral surface granular. Small tubercles present on outer sides of limbs. Fingers free, toes are nearly half-webbed. Dorsal surface of body uniform grey having various shades. Throat of breeding male light orange in colour. Juvenile toads grey or black or reddish-brown above, ventrally uniform white or speckled with black. (Sarker et al., 1992; Dutta, 1997; Chanda, 2002; Daniel, 2002).

Habitat and Ecology. D. melanostictus is highly adaptable and inhabits almost all types of habitats from seashore to forests with high human activities. During the daytime, they hide under logs, stones, piles of bricks, in moist holes and crevices of tree‑trunks. On provocation their parotoid glands secrete a milky alkaloid fluid which may cause some irritation on the human skin. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Breeding occurs from May to September coinciding with the monsoons. However, in areas, like Chittagong University Campus, where conditions are favourable, breeding may occur sporadically during most of the year. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies. (Deuti and Bharati-Goswami, 1995; Daniel, 2002; van Dijk et al., 2004)

Distribution. D. melanostictus is the commonest and widely distributed species in Bangladesh. Elsewhere:  ?Bhutan, Cambodia, China including Taiwan), Hong Kong, India, Indonesia (Introduced), Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea (Introduced), Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam (van Dijk et al., 2004).

Family : DICROGLOSSIDAE Anderson, 1871 [True Frogs]

In general form, especially the smooth skin, they were placed in the Family Ranidae in earlier classifications. The members differ from ranids of this subcontinent by the absence of lateral line and having skin folds or warts. The family contains 164 species (Frost, 2009). Out of these, Bangladesh  has only 11 species.

Genus Euphlyctis Fitzinger, 1843 [Five-fingered Frogs]

Fingers free; tips of toes without discs, but swollen; toes fully webbed; tympanum distinct; vocal sac external and lateral; and ventral surface of body smooth with no porous warts (Sarker et al., 1992). We have two out of four world species of Euphlyctis.

3. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 1799)

English name. Skipper Frog [Common Skittering Frog].  Local names. Katkati Bang.

4

Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length about 65 mm). Snout blunt. Eyes placed more towards top of snout. Dorsal surface of body brownish, greyish, olive-brown to greenish brown with dark olive blotches. Skin bears small tubercles and warts, and more or less distinct rows of pores. Belly and throat white. A dark, light-edged band along each flank and along rear surface of thighs. A skin fold runs from behind eye to shoulder. Limbs bear dark spots. Skin smooth, sometimes a few round warts may be present. Fingers free, toes fully webbed. Vocal sac external and bluish in colour. (Satyamurthi, 1967; Chanda, 2002) 

Habitat and Ecology. This frog is a very aquatic species found in all kinds of fresh waterbodies, even brackish water close to estuary and hill streams. The frog either floats or remains squatting in the vegetation along marginal water. An intruder initiates the frog’s skipping behavior during which the flattened and inflated ventral surface of the body rests on the water surface while the push comes from the completely distended webbed feet which steer the body forward so that the frog is speedily carried to the center of the pond. When further provoked, it plunges into the depths. The eggs are laid in a frothy mass in water. Tadpoles are stout-bodied with dark blotches. (Daniels, 2005; AmphibiaWeb 2009).

Distribution. Skipper frog is common and widely distributed in the plain and high mainland, and islands, like Sandip, Hatya, Saint Martin’s Island and others. Elsewhere: Afghanistan, ?Bhutan, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, ?Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (Khan et al., 2004).

4. Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834)

English name. Indian Green Frog [Six-toed Frog]. Local name. Shobuj Bang.

5

Description. Large-sized frog (snout-vent length of male about 90 mm, female about 140 mm). Head flat with obtuse snout. Dorsal surface of body leaf-green or darker with porous warts, often with yellow pale vertebral stripe runs from snout to vent. Underside and flanks white to yellowish-white, becomes dark-green towards posterior side and under surface of thighs, this dark portion being profusely dotted with pale yellow or creamy white. Tadpoles olive-green with dark green blotches on back. Fingers free, toes pointed and fully webbed. (Satyamurti, 1967; Sarker et al., 1992; Chanda, 2002; Daniels, 2005; AmphibiaWeb 2009).

Habitat and Ecology. It is a largely aquatic species, found in most types of waterbodies, and in various habitats, where it is associated with aquatic vegetation. It has been recorded from brackish water in Sri Lanka. It breeds in the waterbodies. after the showers. Female lays eggs in stagnant water with vegetations like pond and rice fields. (Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 2004; Daniels, 2005).

Distribution. In Bangladesh, it is found mainly in Barisal (SA Howlader, pers com.), Khulna and Dhaka divisions. Elsewhere: India, ?Nepal and Sri Lanka (Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 2004).

Genus Fejervarya Bolkay, 1915

The genus Fejervarya is characterized by presence of ‘Fejervarya line’ on both sides of the belly, and absence of the rictal gland at the mouth commissure (Borthakur et. al., 2007).  Out of 34 world species, Bangladesh has five species of Fejervarya.

5. Fejervarya cancrivora (Gravenhorst, 1829)

English Names.  Asian Brackish Frog [Crab-eating Frog]. Local names. Not Known.

 6

Description. Large frog (snout-vent length of male 51-70 mm, female 53-82 mm. Head large with long snout. Tips of fingers and toes pointed. Toes three-quarterly webbed. Free flap of skin on outer edge of fifth toe. Skin with irregular longitudinal ridges on back, most or all of which at least ten times longer than broad. Dorsal surface of body grey or brown above with irregular dark markings, often in form of ‘W’. A narrow or broad, yellow mid-dorsal band occasionally accompanied by a light line. Limbs with dark crossbars or irregular dark markings. Whitish below, throat variably marbled with light and darker colour. Body of tadpole oval, dark grey with darker spots. (Chanda 2002; Amphi.my 2009)

Habitat and Ecology. F. cancrivora is semiaquatic in habit. It occurs along the coast, in mangrove forest, mudflats, estuarine habitats, swamps and open, wet coastal areas (such as roadside ditches), lower reaches of large river basins, semi brackish, swampy areas close to the sea or in freshwater swamps beyond tidal influence. It also thrives in man-made environments such as rice paddy fields. Tadpoles develop in rain pools above the high water line on the mainland, and in any body of standing water in the Philippines. It is tolerant of moderate salinity. (Chanda 2002; Zhigang et al., 2004; Amphi.my 2009).

Distribution. Islam et al. (2008) recorded this species from Bangladeshi mangrove forest. SMA Rashid and Suprio (pers com) noticed this species as common frog in the Sundarbans. Elsewhere. Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam (Zhigang et al., 2004).

 6. Fejervarya nepalensis Dubois, 1975

English Names.  Nepal Cricket Frog [Nepal Wart Frog]. Local names. Jhin-jhin Bang.

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Description. Small frog (snout-vent length of male 22–31 mm, female 23–32 mm). Head large with pointed snout. Fingers small and free with rounded tips. Toes long, thin with rounded tips. A weak and indistinct fringe of skin on outer side of 5th toe. Dorsal surface of body smooth with four longitudinal folds consisting of oblong tubercles. A cream-colored or whitish–yellow mid dorsal line from snout tip to vent always present. Toe webbing faintly marked. Adult males have vocal sacs and laterally dark and medially pale marking on throat. (Borthakur et. al., 2007) 

Habitat and Ecology. It occurs in grassland, forest and agricultural land (especially paddy fields) and close to human settlements. Breeding takes place in temporary and permanent pools, marshes and paddy fields. There is no information on egg deposition or larval ecology. (Bordoloi and Shrestha, 2004). Rasel (2007) reported the same while working on the Chittagong University Campus anurans and their ecology. He also found that breeding of this frog took place in slow flowing water canal adjacent to the Kata Pahar.

Distribution. This species was recorded as a new country record by Rasel et al. (2007) from Chittagong (Chittagong University Campus, Hathazari), Cox’s Bazar (Himchari), Noakhali (Hatia Island) and Barisal (Sundargaon) districts. Elsewhere: India, Nepal, and ? Myanmar (Bordoloi and Shrestha, 2004).

7. Fejervarya pierrei (Dubois, 1975)

English Names.  Pierre’s Cricket Frog [Pierre’s Wart Frog]. Local name. Jhin-jhin Bang.

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Description. Small frog (snout-vent length of male 26–27 mm, female 24–30 mm). Head large with pointed snout. Tympanum round, indistinct for its black spotted coloration. Fingers small/medium and free, finger tips rounded. Toes long, thin with rounded tips. Dorsal surface of body smooth except for six rows of oblong tubercles. Basic dorsal coloration brownish olive with a few dark irregular, oblong spots. A distinct cream-colored and evenly broad mid dorsal line from snout tip to vent. Throat white with dark narrow bars along margin of lower jaw. Toe webbing faintly marked. Adult males have laterally dark and medially pale marking on throat. (Borthakur et. al., 2007) 

Habitat and Ecology. This species is associated with paddy fields, and reproduction takes place in both ponds and paddy fields (Shrestha and Ohler 2004). Rasel (2007) found the same during his research work. He also observed that reproduction of this frog took place in slow flowing water canal adjacent to the Kata Pahar area of Chittagong University Campus.

Distribution. This species was recorded as a new country record by Rasel et al. (2007) from Chittagong (Chittagong University Campus, Hathazari). Elsewhere: India and Nepal (Shrestha and Ohler 2004).

8. Fejervarya syhadrensis (Annandale, 1919)

English Name.  Long-legged Cricket Frog [Syhadra Frog]. Local name. Jhin-jhin Bang.

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Description. Small frog (snout-vent length of males about 28–30 mm, females 33–38 mm). Head large with pointed snout. Tympanum round, indistinct for its black spotted coloration. Toes long, thin with rounded tips. A vestige of skin fringe on outer side of 5th toe present. Dorsal surface of body smooth with a few rounded or slightly oblong tubercles. Basic dorsal color grayish to brownish olive with a few dark irregular spots partially fused into transverse bands. Mid dorsal line usually absent, if present, very narrow and indistinct. Toe webbing faintly marked. Throat white with dark narrow bars along margin of lower jaw. Adult males have blackish grey and crescent-shaped marking on throat. (Borthakur et. al., 2007) 

Habitat and Ecology. According to Dutta et al. (2004) this frog is associated with paddy fields and similar wetland habitats, breeds in paddy fields and other suitable wetlands, and non-breeding individuals may be found hiding in crevices, and under vegetation and other ground cover. The specimens of F. syhadrensis were located during June-August along with other Fejervarya sp. from paddy fields and edge of the permanent and temporary water body.

Distribution. This species was recorded as a new country record by Rasel et al. (2007) from Chittagong (Chittagong University Campus, Hathazari). This is a common species in the Campus. Elsewhere: India, ? Myanmar and Nepal (Dutta et al., 2004).

9. Fejervarya teraiensis (Dubois, 1984)

English Names. Terai Cricket Frog  [Terai Wart Frog]. Local Name. Jhin-jhin Bang.

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Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length of male 38– 50 mm, female 36–53 mm). Head large and triangular with rounded snout. Fingers free with rounded tips. Toes long, thin, and about 3/5th webbed. A distinct skin fringe on outer side of the 5th toe. Toe webbing faintly marbled. Dorsal surface of body smooth with oblong tubercles somewhat arranged in rows. Basic dorsal color varies from grey to grayish olive with dark irregular spots. Mid dorsal line highly variable, it may or may not be present. Dorsal surface of body has more or less distinctive patches of red, orange or green. Adult males have W–shaped dark marking on throat. (Borthakur et. al., 2007)

Habitat and Ecology. Bordoloi et al. (2004) reported that F. teraiensis is associated with open grasslands; often found close to permanent pools and streams; and breed in temporary and permanent pools and paddy fields. Rasel (2007) collected this species from a hill, known as ‘Kata Pahar’, where there was no permanent pool or stream. They, however, breed in a canal adjacent to the hill during the rainy months when it creates a temporary water body; and the specimens were collected through out the study period. 

Distribution. This is a common frog in Bangladesh, collected from Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal and Sylhet divisions. Rasel (2007) reported this species as Very Common (VC) in the Chittagong University Campus. Elsewhere. India, Nepal, and ? Myanmar (Bordoloi et al., 2004).

Genus Hoplobatrachus Peters, 1863

Fingers quite free; toes completely webbed; vomerine teeth in two oblique series; and tongue deeply notched behind (Günther, 1864). We have two out of four world species of Hoplobatrachus.

10. Hoplobatrachus crassus (Jerdon, 1854)

English name. Jerdon’s Bullfrog [South Indian Bullfrog]. Local name.  Kola Bang.

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Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length about 13 cm) with triangular head and pointed snout. Skin smooth, green to olive-brown on back with irregular black blotches and numerous interrupted folds and warts. Sometimes a white vertebral line present from tip of snout to vent. Juveniles have a prominent dark stripe between tip of upper jaw and front border of eye. Belly, throat and undersides of limbs white and in male, throat (external vocal sacs) becomes black during breeding season. Fingers free, toes fully webbed. (Chanda, 2002; Daniels, 2005). 

Habitat and Ecology. It is a terrestrial species of seasonally flooded dry grasslands, open plains and arid areas. Breeding, and presumably larval development, takes place in many different types of waterbodies. Adults are often found in burrows, and are known to aestivate during dry periods. It is present in cultivated areas and around human settlements. (Padhye et al., 2004)

Distribution. A specimen of H. crassus was collected from the Cox’s Bazar area in 2007 (MA Hannan pers com.). Elsewhere. ?Bhutan, ?China, India, ? Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka (Padhye et al., 2004).

11. Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802)

English name. Indian Bullfrog [Golden Frog]. Local names. Vaoa-bang, Shona-bang, Kola-bang.

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Description. Large, robust bodied frog (snout-vent length of males 84–120 mm, females 103–137 mm). Head flat, triangular with pointed snout. Tympanum distinct, supratympanic fold runs from back of eye to above shoulder. Fingers free, finger tips not sharply pointed. Toes long, tips rounded and fully webbed. Dorsal surface of body smooth with longitudinal glandular folds. Basic dorsal coloration yellowish or olive-green or brownish-green with darker leopard-like spots. A yellowish mid dorsal line runs from tip of snout to vent. Adult males possess bright blue-coloured external vocal sacs. During breeding season underside of male’s groin, thighs and shanks become yellowish-white. Nuptial pad on index finger of male horny and grayish-brown in color. Tadpole bears a yellowish lateral band from behind eye which may disappear in adult. (Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi  1996; Chanda, 2002).

Habitat and Ecology. It is mainly aquatic, inhabiting mostly freshwater wetlands, both natural and artificial (especially paddy fields). It is absent or uncommon in forested areas and coastal regions. It is mostly solitary and nocturnal, inhabiting holes and bushes near permanent water courses and pools. Its diet includes invertebrates, small mammals and birds. Breeding takes place during the monsoon season, when adults congregate at ephemeral rainwater pools. Female lays eggs in water in clusters where each egg enclosed in a double coat of jelly and soon attached to grass blade. It produces large numbers of eggs (and so has potentially high levels of recruitment), but there are high mortality rates among tadpoles, froglets and adult frogs. Chittagong University Campus status of this species was asserted as Uncommon (UC). (Fugler 1983; Dutta, 1990; Padhye et al., 2004; Rasel 2007)

Distribution. This species is found throughout most marshy / wetland areas of Bangladesh.  Elsewhere. Afghanistan, ?Bhutan, ?China, India, Madagascar [int], Maldives [int], Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan (Padhye et al., 2004).

Genus Occidozyga Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1922

Pupil horizontal; tongue narrow and free behind; tympanum indistinct; fingers free, toes webbed; and terminal phalanges simple (Chanda, 2002). We have two out of 12 world species of Occidozyga.

12. Occidozyga borealis (Annandale, 1912)

English name. Northern Trickle Frog [Northern Frog]. Local name. Not known.

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Description. A small frog (snout- vent length about 25 mm). Head short and broad with blunt snout. Dorsal surface pale brown with dark brown shadow spots and warts. A pale brown dorsolateral line runs from behind eye to  groin but it does not form fold. Another shadow line present in between eyes but not prominent. Ventral surface smooth, whitish to cream with a reddish hue. Fingers free, tip of fingers swollen to form distinct discs, toe discs bear groove. Toes almost fully webbed.

Habitat and Ecology. O. borealis is nocturnal and terrestrial anuran. It inhabits in the evergreen and moist deciduous hill forests. Found among leaf litters, under logs and boulders and rocks in forest floor but mostly found on streambed. (Chakma, 2009). It is associated with small, still waters and slow-moving waters in tropical moist forest. Reproduction takes place in small ponds and ditches. (Lau  et. al., 2004)

Distribution. During a herpetofaunal survey the species has been recorded as new country record from Chittagong Hill Tracts (Baghaichari of Rangamati Hill district_Asmat 2005; Bandarban Hill district_ Reza, 2008a); and mixed evergreen forests of Chittagong (southern campus of Chittagong University). Elsewhere. Bhutan, ?China, India, and ?Myanmar (Lau  et. al., 2004).

13. Occidozyga lima (Gravenhorst, 1829)

English names. Floating Frog [Puddle Frog]. Local name. Not known.

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Description.  A small frog (snout-vent length may reach up to 40 mm) with short head and somewhat pointed snout. Fingers free with blunt tip, toes fully webbed with disc-shaped tip. Dorsal surface of body warty due to unequal warts; dark olive with dark spots and occasionally a light mid-dorsal line. Ventral surface whitish with a dark band on the arm and along the hind side of thigh. Rarely a brown L-shaped mark present on each side at the base of thighs. Males have nuptial pads and an internal vocal sac. (Berry, 1975; Chanda, 2002).

Habitat and Ecology. O. lima is found in temporary and permanent pools in forest areas along the foot hills, in slow-moving forest streams, as well as in marshy areas surrounded by bush or grassland. Breeds in June-July in shallow stagnant rain water after heavy shower. Tadpole is elongated, with a pointed snout and tail tip and a high crest on the anterior tail fin. (Chakma, 2009)

Distribution. In Bangladesh, Khan (2001) first recorded this species from Whykeong and Teknaf town area of Chittagong Division. Elsewhere. Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, ?Nepal, Thailand and Viet Nam (van Dijk et al., 2004).

Family MEGOPHRYIDAE Bonaparte, 1850

Most species are forest dwellers, and camouflaged with dead leaves littering the ground and they may be found along the hilly rocks of streams. Members of this family are characterized by the presence of paddle-shaped tongue; large head, often with fleshy horns over the eye; comparatively long forelimbs; and in nature they sit vertically unlike other frogs. Megophryidae includes 137 species, Bangladesh has only two species.

Genus Leptobrachium Tschudi, 1838

Body stocky; skin smooth, or may be provided with minute tubercles on dorsum; tongue heart-shaped; vomerine teeth absent; pupil vertical; tympanum indistinct, sometimes hidden; parotoid glands absent; fingers free; toes webbed at base, tips not dilated; outer metatarsal united (Inger and Stuebing, 1997; Chanda, 2002). The genus contains 21 species, Bangladesh has only a single species.

14. Leptobrachium smithi Matsui, Nabhitabhata and Panha, 1999

English name. Smith’s Litter Frog.  Local name. Not known.

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Description. Moderate-sized frog (snout-vent length of males 36-68 mm, females 50-78 mm.) Head broad and depressed with obtusely pointed snout. Body tapers to groin. Eyes large and slightly projecting from sides of head. Upper half of iris scarlet or yellow. Fingers free with rounded tips (not swollen). Toes long and webbing extends about half of toes. Limbs bear dark cross bars. Dorsal surface of body nearly smooth, blackish with brown markings; and there minute granules scattered behind, especially around vent. No white spots on sides of body and on thigh. Tadpole light brown dorsally on head and body with many small, irregular dark spots; and there a light area bounded by two dark bands over root of tail. (Matsui et al., 1999; Chanda, 2002).

Habitat and Ecology. It is often found under leaf litter in evergreen forest in monsoon and rainforest climatic regions, as well as dense mixed deciduous forest; and tadpoles inhabit deep sections of forest streams with little current (IUCN, Conservation International and NatureServe, 2004). Many males begin to call just after sunset from the forest floor apart from the water. Males usually call from logs, bushes and rocks along streams (Matsui et al., 1999). Their call is very loud, usually from May to August but incompletely metamorphosed specimens and larval forms were collected from Bangladesh only in February-May.

Distribution. In Bangladesh, the presence of this species was first reported by Asmat (2005) from the south-eastern Bangladesh (Chittagong and Rangamati Hill-district), also found in Lawachara and Rema Kalenga forests of Sylhet division (Chakma, 2009; Reza, 2009). Elsewhere. India, ?Lao People’s Democratic Republic, ?Malaysia, ?Myanmar and Thailand (van Dijk et. al., 2004). 

Genus Xenophrys Günther, 1864

Skin tuberculated; tongue rounded, entire and free behind; pupil vertical; tympanum indistinct; fingers free; toes free or minutely webbed; and tips of fingers and toes not dilated (Chanda, 2002). Out of 36 species, we have only a single species, Xenophrys parva.

15. Xenophrys parva (Boulenger, 1893)

English name. Concave-crowned Horned Toad.  Local name. Not known.

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Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length of male about 45 mm, female about 52 mm). Head large and depressed. Skin smooth with a number of scattered minute tubercles. Fingers free with feebly swollen tips. Toes blunt and minutely webbed. Dorsal surface of body light brown with darker symmetrical markings. A small prominent white tubercle present on either side of breast. One or two fleshy ridges on back and a small cone-shaped tubercle often present above eye. A dark brown triangle on op of head, and a similar brown X on back. Color of back ranges from reddish brown to golden brown, and throat and chest mottled with dark brown. Pupil vertical, and iris golden brown. Tadpoles have a funnel-shaped mouth, and body almost uniformly light brown, except for translucent extremities of tail fin. (Sarker et al., 1992; Chanda, 2002; Daniel, 2002; Novelguide.com, 2009). 

Habitat and Ecology. The species is terrestrial and relatively active. It hides in leaf litter by day and relies on its cryptic coloration to avoid predators. It is known from the evergreen broadleaf forest alongside the streams. It is a stream-breeding amphibian, found in the smaller mountain streams upto a certain altitude. The males are generally found on boulders or rocks near hill streams or any other projecting objects. The Burmese spadefoot toad actively forages at night, feeding on small insects, including crickets, spiders, and moths.  (Chanda, 2002; van Dijk et. al., 2004; Novelguide.com, 2009)

Distribution. In Bangladesh, X. parva was first recorded by Asmat et al., (2003) from two isolated localities in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, and most likely occurs more widely in this country (van Dijk et. al., 2004). Chakma (pers com.) observed the behaviour of X. parva in Bandarban and Khagrachari Hill districts. Elsewhere. Bhutan, China, India, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Viet Nam (van Dijk et. al., 2004).

Family MICROHYLIDAE Günther, 1858

Microhylids are characterised by short narrow pointed mouth, short limbs, and having ability to puff their body. They usually live under ground, in natural tree holes. A few members (e.g. Microhyla sp.) have ability to cross considerable distance in a single leap, some are slow mover (Uperodon sp.) and others have ability to climb and produce latex-like fluid from their skin (Kaloula sp.). Seven out of 436 species under this family are found in Bangladesh.

Genus Kalophrynus Tschudi, 1838

No spine-like dermal projections at heel or elbow; belly lacking brown network on yellow background; undersurface of fingers lack enlarged tubercles; snout short, less than twice eye diameter; inner metatarsal tubercle low, not shovel-shaped; and tympanum visible. (Parker, 1934; Inger, 1966) Out of 14 species of Kalophrynus (belong to four genera), Bangladesh has only a single species, Kalophrynus interlineatus.

16. Kalophrynus interlineatus (Blyth, 1855)

English names. Spotted Narrow-mouthed Frog. Local names. Not known.

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Description. A small frog, with a rather compact, toad-like body shape (up to 6 cm long). Mustard yellow or yellowish-brown in colour above, streaked with an irregular, inverted Y- or V-shaped, brown mid-dorsal stripe, and many brown spots that extend onto hind legs. A jagged, yellowish streak also extends from beneath nostril to angle of jaw. Flanks chocolate-brown. Numerous granules scattered over back, sides and legs. Ventral surface of body white. Snout pointed and upturned, giving frog a rather ‘haughty’ look. Fore and hind limbs short. Fingers free, toes short, half-webbed, tips of fingers and toes slightly swollen. (Boulenger, 1890; Geocities.com 2009).

Habits and habitat. It lives in cultivated fields and adjacent grassy hillsides. Moves slowly about by crawling or taking short hops in toad-like fashion. It has an interesting food capturing method. Having spotted its prey, approaches it stealthily, lifting each limb slowly as it advances for the kill. When alarmed, exudes a sticky, milky fluid from its skin glands. The spotted pattern provides excellent camouflage when the frog is hiding in grass, making it practically invisible. Breeds from late spring to summer in areas where patches of seasonal marshland are formed. Newly metamorphosed froglets have no markings on the back. (Geocities.com 2009).

Distribution. In Bangladesh, it has been recorded from a deciduous forest of Dhaka division (Madhupur) by Mahony and Reza (2007). Elsewhere. Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam (Dijk et al., 2004).

Genus Kaloula Gray, 1831

Pupil horizontal; tongue oval, entire and free behind; tips of digits with or without discs; toes more or less webbed; and terminal phalanges triangular or T-shaped (Chanda, 2002). Bangladesh has two out of 15 recognised species Kaloula.

17. Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831

English name. Painted Bull Frog [Ox Frog]. Local name. Not known.

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Description. Medium-sized frog (up to 80 mm long). Body stout to obese in proportions. fingers free, tips dilated into well-developed truncated discs. Toes slightly webbed at base with swollen tips. Dorsal colour varies from pink to light brown with a broad chevron-shaped marking bordering sides. Marking ranges from dirty mustard to orange or pink. Lower surface of body yellowish or light grey and faintly mottled with light brown. Chin and throat blackish in breeding male. Young specimens more brightly coloured. A few tubercles scattered over dorsal surface. A chocolate-brown streak runs down lower sides of head, beginning just behind each eye. Hind feet have horny plates, acting as ‘spades’ for digging. (Chanda, 2002; Geocities.com 2009)

 Habitat and Ecology. Although primarily a burrower, has well-developed suction discs on its fore feet to enable it to climb fairly steep surfaces. Has been found in drainage holes in catchwaters, at a considerable height from ground level, and even on trees. It is quite adaptable and was presumably originally a wetland/riverbank/forest edge species that has adapted successfully to agricultural and residential landscapes. Despite its burrowing habits, is not very secretive. Usually found in cultivated fields and surrounding woodlands, especially around ponds and water tanks. Often found at night sitting in front of moving ant columns, and occasionally seizing and gulping down individual ants. In captivity does well on mealworms, crickets, beetles and earthworms. When captured, rapidly inflates itself with air and may make faint squeaking noises. It breeds in small pools, throughout the warmer months after heavy rains. Tadpoles dark, very fat and squarish in shape, with a thin tail. Newly metamorphosed frogs without the chevron-shaped marking, but with a pale spot on the axillae. (Kuangyang et al., 2004; Geocities.com 2009)

Distribution.  In Bangladesh, K. pulchra is a widely distributed frog in deciduous and semi-evergreen forests. It has been collected from tree holes, on the road while crossing, different temporary water bodies and also from the rocky forest streams. Each year many frogs are killed while crossing the road in Chittagong University Campus, where most of them belong to this species (SA Howlader pers com). Elsewhere. Cambodia, China (introduced in Taiwan), Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam (Kuangyang et al., 2004).

18. Kaloula taprobanica Parker, 1934

English names. Indian Painted Frog [Sri Lankan Bullfrog]. Local name. Not known.

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Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length about 75 mm). Body somewhat rounded with small head and rounded snout. Colour dorsally grey to black with an interorbital bar. Ventral pale yellowish-grey, spotted with brown or black. Skin finely pebbled with widely scattered warts. Dorsolaterally reddish-orange, an orange bar from posterior edge of eye to base of upper arm. Fingers free, tips with well-developed flattened truncate disk. Toes one third webbed, tips rounded or slightly dilated. Males have dark chin and throat during mating period. (Parker, 1934; Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996; Daniels, 2005; AmphibiaWeb 2009).

Habitat and Ecology.  It is a burrowing species found in a wide variety of habitat types including dry forests, plantations (coconut and rubber), wetlands and areas close to human habitations. It is generally found under leaf-litter, in loose soil, and under logs and other ground cover. Feed on insects presumably prefer termites. Breeding and larval development take place in stagnant and temporary waterbodies. They are brownish and spotted with pink on above and lower lip; omnivorous, feeding both on animal and vegetable matters (Satyamurti, 1967; Inger et. al.,  2004).

Distribution. In Bangladesh, it has been recorded from a deciduous forest of Dhaka division (Madhupur National Park) by Reza and Mahony (2006). Elsewhere. India and Sri Lanka (Inger et. al.,  2004). 

Genus Microhyla Tschudi, 1838

Skin smooth or with small warts; tongue narrow and elliptical, free and entire behind; pupil vertical and circular; tympanum hidden; fingers free; toes webbed to a greater or lesser extent; tips of fingers and toes more or less dilated; and terminal phalanges T-shaped (Chanda, 2002). Out of 30 species, we have only three species of Microhyla.

19. Microhyla berdmorei (Blyth, 1856)

English names. Berdmore’s Narrow-mouthed frog. Local name. Cheena Bang, Choto Bang.

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Description.  Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length about 25-45 mm). Head broad with obtusely pointed snout. Tympanum hidden, not visible through skin. nostril little closer to tip of snout than to eyes. Finger tips swollen into very small disks, dorsal surface of disks with a median, longitudinal groove or notch. Toes fully webbed with  swollen tips Skin smooth or with very small, scattered tubercles on back, larger ones on sides above arms. Gular region smooth in females, rugose in males. Brownish grey or pinkish above; a darker, light-edged, houglass shaped mark on head and anterior part of back, beginning between eyes, sometimes continued on hind part of back. Black spots on sides of limbs and occasionally on flanks. Black spots on limbs form more or less indistinct cross-bars. A chevron-shaped black marking on anal region. Flanks, belly and undersurfaces of thighs yellowish. Throat grey or brown speckled with dark brown. (Chanda, 2002; Amphibia.my 2009)

Habitat and Ecology. The species inhabits various types of moist evergreen forests, including monsoon and perennial rainforests, being generally associated with hilly regions (Berry, 1975; Dring, 1979; Inger et al., 1999). It also occurs in secondary growth, breeds mainly in still pools, and adults and juveniles wander widely on the forest floor (Dijk et. al.,  2004). Among the microhylids this is the only species in Bangladesh breeds in winter from November to February. Usually male stretches his legs during call.

Distribution. M. berdmorei is common in hill forests of Chittagong and Sylhet divisions. Ross and Cavagnaro (1961: in the collection of California Academy of Sciences_CAS 94615, CAS 94616) first collected the specimens of this frog from Harbang of Cox’s Bazar. Elsewhere. ?Bhutan, ?Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam (Dijk et. al.,  2004).

20. Microhyla ornata (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

English names. Ornate Narrow-mouthed Frog. Local name. Cheena Bang.

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Description. Small frog (males grow to about 23 mm; and females to 25 mm in body length). Rather rotund body tapers to a narrow head and bluntly pointed snout. Finger and toe tips swollen into very small discs, and toes have only scant webbing. Dorsal ground color light olive brown and sometimes grayish or reddish. A prominent dorsal pattern includes black bands originate behind head and diverge as they pass posteriorly. Distinctive pattern on back, which may be bright pink or brown of varying shades, begins between eyes where it extends to both eyelids, narrow on nape, widens above shoulder, narrows again, and finally broadens out, sending a stripe to groin and thigh. Skin smooth, sometimes with small tubercles on dorsal and lateral surface of body. (Thurston, 1888; Chanda, 2002; Novelguide.com. 2009). 

Habitat and Ecology. It is mostly a nocturnal species that is only active diurnally during the rainy season. Sub-fossorial in habit, it is also found in forest floor leaf-litter. They are said to be poor swimmers but very active jumpers. They can change their colour to a certain extent depending on their habitat. They feed on small ants and termites. It occupies a number of habitat types including lowland forest, grassland, agricultural land, pastureland and urban areas. It breeds in temporary rain pools and other bodies of still water. Breeding takes place after heavy rain, when males call from the water in flooded rice fields and similar habitats. Breeding season of this species is from May to September in Chittagong area. The female deposits several hundred eggs that float in a film at the surface of the water, and the tadpoles exhibit unusually rapid growth. Tadpoles are largely transparent, which makes them inconspicuous in shallow water. (Ray, 1999; Dutta et. al., 2004; Rasel, 2007; Novelstudy.com, 2009)

Distribution.  M. ornata is a widely distributed species in Bangladesh. Elsewhere. Bangladesh; Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka (Dutta et. al., 2004).

21. Microhyla rubra (Jerdon, 1854)

English name. Red Narrow-mouthed Frog. Local name. Lal Cheena Bang

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Description. Small-sized frog (snout-vent length of males 20-28 mm, and of females 20-30 mm). Body stout, head broad with rounded snout. Finge free, toes one-third webbed. Tips of fingers and toes not swollen. Skin smooth. Reddish brown above, sides darker; a dark brown line from tip of snout through eye along side of back to groin; a dark brown mark across thigh, beginning on loin. Limbs with more or less distinct dark cross bars. Sometimes a dark X-shaped marking on anterior portion of back, commencing between eyes. Belly whitish, immaculate or with a few brown dots on throat. Male with a subgular vocal sac, and throat black  (Thurston 1888).

Habitat and Ecology. A lowland species inhabiting dry forest, shrubland and grassland, agricultural land and often close to human habitation (including urbanised areas). Individuals are found in loose soil, amongst leaf-litter, and under logs and other ground cover. Breeding takes place in still waters and paddy fields. The breeding season coincides with the monsoon. The eggs are laid in flat, transparent masses. The tadpoles are transparent with a reddish pink tint. (Daniel, 2002; Padhye et al., 2004)

Distribution. M. rubra was recorded from the semi-evergreen forest of Chittagong (Asmat et al., 2003) in Bangladesh. Elsewhere. India, ? Myanmar and Sri Lanka.

Genus Uperodon Duméril and Bibron, 1841

Head very short, mouth small; tongue oval and free behind; skin smooth or slightly tuberculated;. pupil vertical; tympanum indistinct, sometimes hidden; limbs short with free fingers; toes slightly webbed; and tips of fingers and toes not dilated. (Günther, 1864; Chanda, 2002). One out of two species has been recorded from our territory.

22. Uperodon globulosus (Günther, 1864)

English name. Balloon Frog [Indian Globular Frog]. Local names. Baloon / Potka Bang.

23 

Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length of males 65 mm, and females 84 mm). Body stout and globular-shaped with rounded snout. Fingers free, tips not dilated. Tips of toes rounded, webbing rudimentary. Inner metatarsal tubercle longer than second toe. Dorsal skin smooth throughout, but granular near vent. Ventral surface smooth. Dorsal parts of head and dorsum brown with olive tinge, with black on snout, between nasal openings and between shoulders. Upper and lower flanks on either side, dorsal and lateral parts of limbs spotted dark brown to black. Ventral parts of head, body and limbs pale with yellowish tinge. Vocal sac subgular and black in breeding male. Tadpoles olive-brown on upper side with spots on flanks and under side. Tail whitish, striped longitudinally with dark blotchy lines. (Thurston, 1888; Srinivasulu et. al.,  2006)

Habitat and Ecology. This is a fossorial and nocturnal species, found in both forests and agricultural land. They prefer loose sandy soil and are excellent burrowers using the strong pedal tubercles on the hind legs to quickly burrow and disappear underground. While burrowing the soil is dislodged by the sideways movement of the legs till the frog subsides into the ground with its eyes disappearing last and leaving no trace of its presence. In clay soil, however an opening is left for breathing while the frog may remain at a depth of almost two meters. Emergence of these frogs coincides with the emergence of the winged termites following heavy rains in June and extend upto July. On being disturbed, they inhale air into their enormously distensible lungs while keeping the head downwards and the two sides of the abdomen swell like a globular puffball giving the appearance of a balloon. Breeding takes place in shallow ponds and marshy wetlands. The males are seen to float in water, while croaking. A sticky substance secreted by both the partners help to remain tightly together during pairing.

Distribution. In Bangladesh, it has been observed in the sal forests of Dhaka (Madhupur, Savar, Gazipur) and Chittagong divisions. Elsewhere. ? Bhutan, ?China, India and ?Myanmar (Dutta et. al.,  2004).

Family RANIDAE Rafinesque, 1814

Ranids or the true frogs are very diverse group of frogs. Members of this family is characterized by having toothed upper jaw; diapophyses of sacral vertebra very slightly developed when present; pupil horizontal; tongue more or less deeply emarginated; fingers perfectly free, toes webbed; and skin smooth with dorsolateral line on each side of body (absent in Amolops). (Thurston, 1888; Chanda 2002) Currently, 338 species are included in this family. Out of these, Bangladesh has only seven species belonging to four genera.

Genus Amolops Cope, 1865

Skin generally smooth; dorsolateral line of body absent; tongue bifid, free; vomerine teeth present; pupil horizontal; fingers free, toes webbed; tips of fingers and toes dilated into distinct discs with crescentic or horse-shoe-shaped groove, separating upper surface from the lower one; and terminal phalanges with feeble transverse expansion (Chanda, 2002). Out of 42 species, we have only a single species, Amolops marmoratus under this genus.

23. Amolops marmoratus (Blyth, 1855)

English names. Marbled Sucker Frog [Torrent Frog]. Local name. Pahari Bang.

 24

Description. Large-sized frog (snout-vent length about 100 mm). Head depressed with rounded snout. Tympanum rounded, indistinct. Fingers long with large terminal discs which flattened, rounded. Two twin palmer tubercles elongated, flattened, moderately prominent. Toes fully webbed with discs smaller than finger discs. Two distinct metatarsal tubercles, outer tubercle small and circular, and inner one elongate. Olive or greyish above with darker spots on body. Limbs crossbarred. Ventrally yellow uniform or marbled with brown. (Daniel, 2002; Ray, 1999).

Habitat and Ecology. A. marmoratus inhabits hill streams and adjoining areas, usually conceal themselves under boulders facing water bodies whenever disturbed; they can dive into water even of fast flowing streams. Their breeding season is not known, but different stages of tadpoles are seen in fast flowing streams almost throughout the year.

Distribution. In Bangladesh, A. marmoratus was first reported by Asmat et. al. (2003) from Khagrachari Hill district, later, Suprio Chakma (pers com.) collected this frog from   Rangamati, and Bandarban Hill districts. Elsewhere. Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Thailand (van Dijk et al., 2004).

Genus Clinotarsus Mivart, 1869

Members of this genus are characterized by having pointed snout; slender and long limbs; long fingers and toes with triangular disk-shaped tips; free fingers, webbed toes; and distinct but narrow dorslolateral fold. Out of two species, one is distributed in Bangladesh. 

24. Clinotarsus alticola (Boulenger, 1882)

English names. Palebrown Stream Frog [Annandale’s Frog]. Local names. Not known.

25

Description. Medium-sized frog (snot-vent length about 50 mm). Head long and pointed. Tympanum very prominent. Fingers slender and free. Toes entirely webbed but phalanges of fourth toe free. Tips of fingers and toes dilated into horse-shoe-shaped disc. Skin smooth, dorsal surface golden-yellow to light brown or dark brown and ventral surface almost white. Throat somewhat dirty-white with a white straight mark at middle. Males have black lateral sides, often scatter blackish patches on back and faint band on legs. (Chanda 2002)

Habitat and Ecology. The species is semi-aquatic and inhabits edge of hill forest streams. Usually found on the ground but capable to clime on grasses and bushes. Nocturnal in habit, during day hides under stone, boulders and moist forest litter. It exhibits sexual dimorphism in colouration (Choudhury et al., 2001). Not much known about its breeding habits but tadpole with limbs has been seen in December. Male has internal vocal sac and the call is of very low tempo. Tadpole is fairly large and a very distinct orange round spot present at the base on the tail. (Chakma 2009)

Distribution. Dutta (1997) reported C. alticola from Dhaka. Van Dijk et. al. (2004) mentioned its occurrence in northern Bangladesh. Chakma (pers. com. in 2004) collected a few tadpoles of this species from Chittagong Hill

Tracts area. Later, Reza (2008b) recorded it from hill forest stream of Chittagong Hill Tracts (Rangamati Hill district). Elsewhere. ?China, India, Myanmar, ?Nepal and Thailand (van Dijk et. al.,  2004).

Genus Humerana Dubois, 1992

Members of this genus may be characterized by having vomerine teeth; pointed snout; smooth skin; distinct tympanum; free fingers; webbed toes; disc-shaped tips of fingers and toes; and humeral gland. Out of three species of this genus, Bangladesh has only a single species, Humerana humeralis.

25. Humerana humeralis (Boulenger, 1887)

English names. Bhamo Frog. Local name. Not known.

 26

Description. A large-sized frog (snout-vent length of male 60-72 mm; of female 62-75 mm). Head  large with  obtusely pointed snout. Tips of fingers dilated into triangular discs. Toes webbed. Supratympanic fold starts from anterior corner of eye ends with an elongated gland at base of back of mandible. Another elongated gland known as humeral gland lies on base of forelimb and separated by a very small distance from former. Skin smooth, slightly granular on posterior back. Dorsally dull olive, ventrally white. Dorsolateral folds bright-yellow with silvery hue. A whitish irregular line extended from rictal gland to groin. Male have a pair of large external subgular vocal sacs. (Boulenger, 1890; Husain et al., 2007).

Habitat and Ecology. H. humeralis inhabits edge of marshes, swamp, ponds, streams and other waterbodies with short vegetations. In winter the frog retreats itself under moist leaf litter in shade. It has ability to climb up on bushes and small branches. In India (Assam), peak breeding take place from April to June. Eggs laid in shallow water  near the bank. (Hussain et al., 2007) In Bangladesh, very little is known about the breeding habits but male call can be heard during June and July; when male calls from the edge of water or from submerged vegetations in shallow water. (Chakma 2009)

Distribution. Asmat (2005) reported this species from Chittagong Hill Tracts (Kabongpuria of Khagrachari Hill district), and later, Chakma (2009) collected it from Baghaichari of Rangamati Hill district, and Sylhet division (Rema Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary). Elsewhere. ?Bhutan, ?China, India, Myanmar and Nepal (van Dijk et. al., 2004).

Genus Hylarana Tschudi, 1838

Members of this genus are slim-bodied ranids having pointed snout; prominent dorsolateral fold; slender and long limbs; free fingers, webbed toes; and triangular disc-shaped tips of fingers and toes.

26. Hylarana leptoglossa (Cope, 1868)

English name. Cope’s Frog [Long-tongued Frog]. Local name. Not known.

27

Description. Moderate-sized frog (snout-vent length about 65-70 mm). Head slightly flattened with , obtusely pointed snout. Pupil of eyes circular. Dorsal surface of body brown with small to large black spots or markings, sides black with white spots or marblings. Fingers free, toes two-thirds webbed. Tips of fingers and toes with small discs. Limbs with blackish crossbands. Tympanum distinct. Ventral surface white and smooth, spotted or marbled with brown. Skin strongly granulated on head and back. A strong and broad glandular dorsolateral fold runs above tympanum up to hip. Another glandular fold extends from posterior region of eyes up to shoulder followed by a glandule. (Chanda 1994)

Habitat and Ecology. It is known from streams in evergreen forest. It inhabits thick vegetation near small streams, damp floor of old building, bushes at the edge of streams, in leaf litters on forest floor and under boulders or fallen log in the secondary and primary forests. Breeds in monsoon (May-August). H. leptoglossa is nocturnal, also active at breeding time. They breed in breed in streams, canals, stagnant waters, or pond with vegetations. Tadpole is black and has ability to survive in muddy and turbid water. (van Dijk et al., 2004; Chakma 2009; pers. obs.)

Distribution. In Bangladesh, H. leptoglossa was first reported by Asmat et. al. (2003) from areas of Chittagong division. Later, Mahony and Reza (2007) recorded it from Dhaka division (Madhupur National Park), and Rasel (2007) recognised the Chittagong University Campus Status of this species as Uncommon (UC). The species could be found in other areas of Bangladesh. Elsewhere. India, Myanmar, and Thailand (van Dijk et. al., 2004).

27. Hylarana nigrovittata (Blyth, 1856)

English names. Dark-sided Frog [Black Spotted Frog]. Local name. Not known.

28

Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length of males 38-55 mm; of females 35-60 mm. Tympanum very distinct. Skin more or less granular above. A broad but feebly prominent dorsolateral fold present, but supratympanic fold absent. Ventral surfaces smooth. Upper arm with large, flat, dark-centrered glandular swelling near anterior ventral edge of shoulder. Brown above, uniform or with a few small scattered darker patches. Supratympanic fold absent. A very dark brown broad stripe on each side, from tip of snout to groin, passing through eye and tympanum, and bordering dorsolateral fold. Limbs with dark cross-bars. Hinder surface of thighs marbled with dark brown. Hindlimbs with dark brown cross-bars, forelimbs spotted. Finger tips dilated into small discs. Toes nearly fully webbed. Discs on toe larger in size.  (Berry, 1975; Amphibia.my 2009). 

Habitat and Ecology. S. nigrovittata inhabits in forest floor and stream beds. Nocturnal in habits; during day time hides in forest litter, under stones, and fallen logs. No information available in its natural history but breeding call has been heard in November and December. Chakma (2009)

Distribution. In Bangladesh, Chakma (2009) collected this frog mainly from the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Chakma (2009) also observed that the Bangladeshi specimens show slight difference from the species found in Southeast Asia by the less prominent black stripes along the flank. Elsewhere. Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam (Dijk et. al., 2004).

28. Hylarana taipehensis (Van Denburgh, 1909)

English name. Taipeh Frog (Two-striped Grass Frog). Local names. Not known.

 29

Description. Slender, medium-sized frog (snout-vent length 40-50 mm). Head elongated with pointed snout. Body grass green above, leaving a median whitish line at end of vertebral; dorsolateral line pure white, bordered with black; another indistinct fold runs from base of forelimb through flank that upper margined with narrow black line. Upper lip whitish with a dark stripe. Limbs light brown with few dark spots. Underside creamy to white. Male with internal vocal sacs. Fingers slender, free; toes almost fully webbed. Tips of fingers and toes swollen into small but distinct disks.

Habitat and Ecology. It inhabits open, grassy wetland areas, rice paddies, river floodplains and forest ponds and swampy areas in deciduous forest. It breeds in standing water that has any kind of thicket around the edge. Breeding has been reported in April. (Choudhury et. al.,   2001; Dijk et. al., 2004)

Distribution. Asmat (2005) reported this species as new country record from Chittagong region Elsewhere. Cambodia, China (including Taiwan), Hong Kong, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, ?Macao, ?Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam (Dijk et. al.,  2004).

29. Hylarana tytleri Theobald, 1868

English names. Bengal Leaping Frog [Yellow-striped Frog]. Local name. Pana Bang.

30

Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length about 50 mm). Head elongated with pointed snout. Body light brown to greenish above, sides dark brown. Glandular dorsolateral fold whitish with yellow to golden hue, edged with black; sometimes another indistinct fold extends from behind tympanum to shoulder. Upper lip whitish. Limbs with black irregular rows of dots. Undersurface of body white. Male with internal vocal sacs and an oval flat gland on inner side of forelimbs. Fingers free, toes almost fully webbed. Tips of fingers and toes swollen into small but distinct discs. (Boulenger, 1890). 

Habits and habits. This species is associated with a variety of aquatic habitats such as pools, lakes and marshes. It may be found in bank side vegetation, and within scrubland and tropical forest habitats. The species generally breeds in stagnant waterbodies, and can be found in artificially flooded agricultural areas. (Dutta et. al., 2004) During a herpetofaunal survey Rasel (2007) collected this frog from the edge of a rapidly flowing natural water canal, named ‘Balu khal Chhara’ (Chittagong University Campus), while croaking, only in May, 2006, that indicates this species possibly breed there. Rasel (2007) also found it in the agricultural field near the Biological Science Faculty building.

Distribution. It is a widely distributed aquatic frog in the plains of Bangladesh. But Rasel (2007) determined Campus Status of this species as Very Rare (VR).Elsewhere. ? Bhutan, India and ?Myanmar (Dutta et. al.,  2004)

Family – RHACOPHORIDAE Hoffman, 1932

Members of this group may be characterised by toothed upper jaw, but toothless lower jaw; large discs on fingers and toes; minutely to fully webbed fingers; two-thirds to fully webbed toes; male with internal vocal sac; free and deeply bifurcated tongue; and distinct tympanum. (Chanda, 2002)

The members of the family Rhacophoridae are widely distributed in the tropical regions of Asia and Africa, popularly known as tree frogs, bush frogs, flying and gliding frogs. They lay eggs in foam nests hanging over water or directly in water; and tadpoles hatch and drop into the water to complete their development. Out of 297 world species, Bangladesh has only six species under three genera.

Genus Chiromantis Peters, 1854

Skin smooth; pupil horizontal; two inner fingers are free and outer ones have two-thirds webbed; toes extensively webbed; and vomerine teeth absent (Chanda, 2000).

30. Chiromantis simus (Annandale, 1915)

English name. Annandale Tree Frog. Local names. Gecho-bang, Gaoochcha-bang.

31

Description. Small, slimy frog (snout-vent length of male about 27 mm, of female 29 mm). Head large with rounded snout. Dorsal surface of body yellowish to grey, ventral surface whitish; fingers and toes bright yellow. Skin smooth, two to four faint brown lines on back. Dorsal smooth, ventral with minute tubercles. Throat and lateral sides covered with small tubercles and warts. Abdomen and thighs granulate. Fingers free. Tips of finger and toes dilated into adhesive discs. Toes two-third webbed. (Chanda, 2000; Deuti et al., 2000). 

Habitat and Ecology. C. simus inhabits low bushes in the villages in low hills and forested areas. Nocturnal, arboreal and insectivorous; usually sluggish and difficult to find except breeding season. Sympatric with Polypedates leucomystax. Breeding occurs in May-July. Foam nests are found on leaf surface, hang about 1.5 m above the water. About 92-100 tadpoles hatch from a single nest. (Deuti et al., 2000; Chakma 2009).

Distribution.  In Bangladesh, Asmat et al. (2003) first recorded  this species from south-eastern Bangladesh (Chittagong and Rangamati Hill-district). Later, Chakma (2009) collected it from forested areas of Sylhet (Lawachara, Satchari) and Chittagong divisions (Chittagong University campus, Cox’s Bazar and Baghaichari). Elsewhere. ?Bhutan and India (Dutta et al., 2004).

31. Chiromantis vittatus (Boulenger, 1887)

English name. Tree Frog. Local name. Not known.

 32

Description. Small, slimy frog (snout-vent length of male about 22 mm, of female 25 mm). Snout obtusely pointed, Dorsal surface of body smooth and yellowish, closely speckled with brown. Ventral surface whitish with minute tubercles. Fingers and toes bright yellow. A thick, yellowish-white lateral band extended forward as a narrow line along edge of upper eyelid, to tip of snout, where it unites with its fellow of other side. Fingers with rudiment of web, toes three-fourths webbed. Finger and toe-tips form well-developed discs. (Boulenger, 1890). C. vittatus differs from C. simus in having yellowish-white dorsolateral line.

Habitat and Ecology. It is an inhabitant of open grassy areas in tropical forest and forest edge. It breeds in forest ponds and rain-pools. This frog is tolerant of a degree of habitat modification and has been found in paddy fields. ((Inger et al., 1999; Stuart, 1999; Lau et. al., 2004)

Distribution. In Bangladesh, the species has been recorded from forested areas of Cox’s Bazar district (MH Khan in Chakma 2009). Elsewhere. Cambodia, China, India; Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam (Lau et al., 2004).

Genus Polypedates Tschudi, 1838

Skin smooth and vomerine teeth always present; fingers webbed at the base; distal end of metacarpal distinctly dilated with bony knob; and terminal phalanges of fingers and toes “Y”-shaped (Chanda, 2002).

32. Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829)

English names. Common tree Frog [Four-lined Tree Frog]. Local name. Gecho Bang.

33

Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length of male about 50 mm; of female 90 mm). Head with obtusely pointed snout. Dorsal skin smooth, color range from solid orange-tan to lightly-striped gray with four (sometimes six) dark stripes descends from head down back. Often whitish spots present on back as well on hind part of thigh. Ventral side solid white or cream in color and granulated. A distinct W-shaped skull-mark on hind neck visible at rest. Fingers and toes have well-developed discs (adapted to adhere tree branches or other surfaces). Fingers rudimentary webbed, toes fully webbed. Dark cross bands and networks present at base of thigh. Male has an internal vocal sac (Chanda, 2002; Daniels, 2005; Dutta 2009).

Habitat and Ecology. It is a very adaptable opportunist and commensal, occurring from beach vegetation through all manner of human habitats (such as agricultural areas, ditches, artificial ponds and lakes, gardens, even in houses) and natural edge habitats to closed primary forest. It appears to be dependent on human activities to create suitable habitats. Using its sticky, expanded toe pads, a male will climb up the vegetation and call from one spot until a female locates it. The pair then searches for a spot near water and as they mate, a whitish foam nest is formed and attached to twigs, leaves or walls overhanging the water. The eggs and sperm are released into this foam nest where the tadpoles will form. When the sun rises, the foam nest hardens but within a day or two, or when rain falls, it disintegrates, dispersing the tadpoles into the water below. Tadpoles hatch out from the foam nest and drop in water within 60-96 hours. Metamorphosis takes 3 weeks to 2 month or so, depending on food availability. ((Diesmos et. al., 2004; Dutta 2009; Chakma 2009)

Distribution. This tree frog is one of the common tree frog and occurs throughout Bangladesh. Elsewhere.?Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan (Introduced), Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam (Diemos et al., 2004).

33. Polypedates maculatus (Gray, 1830)

English names. Spotted Tree Frog [Common Tree Frog]. Local name. Gecho Bang.

34

Description. Medium-sized frog (snout-vent length of mature males 34-57 mm, females 44-89 mm). Head slightly depressed, snout obtusely pointed. Dorsal surface smooth, chin and chest smoothly granular, ventral  surface and underside of thigh granular. Dorsal surface of body olivaceous to chestnut, sometimes brownish-yellow or grey with scattered dark spots. Limbs with dark cross-bars. Hinder side of thighs with round yellow spots which usually separated by a dark brown network. Males have single internal vocal sac and nuptial pad at base of first finger. Fingers nearly unwebbed, toes two-thirds webbed. Discs of fingers and toes moderately developed. (Boulenger, 1890; Daniel 2002)

Habitat and Ecology. It has been recorded from a wide variety of habitat types including tropical dry and moist forests, grasslands, and agricultural areas and close to human habitations. It is largely nocturnal and arboreal, although it can be found on walls and hidden under rocks and leaves. During day time they shelter at the base of banana leaves, tree barks, and other shady places. They are highly adaptable often enter inside the living room. Males have been reported calling from the ground. It breeds in temporary pools and paddy fields. Breeding-time is the monsoon season. The call of the male frog is heard after sunset. The foam-nest is semiglobular in shape with a flat bottom attached to the substrate. Fresh foam is white, becoming dirty white or brown. Trees overhanging water tanks and pools are used as spawning sites. The whitish tadpoles drop out of the foam nest into the water. Tadpoles take 55 days for complete metamorphosis, feeding on desmids, diatoms and algae. (Dutta et al., 2004; Daniels, 2005)

Distribution. Widely distributed in Bangladesh. Elsewhere. Bhutan, ?China, India, ?Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka (Dutta et al., 2004).

Genus Rhacophorus Kuhl and van Hasselt, 1822

Pupil horizontal; tongue free and deeply notched behind; tympanum generally distinct; fingers and toes almost fully webbed and tips of fingers and toes dilated into discs (Boulenger, 1890). Out of 78 world species, Bangladesh has following 2 species.

34. Rhacophorus bipunctatus Ahl, 1927

English name. Twin-spotted Tree Frog [Htun Win’s Treefrog]. Local name. Gecho Bang

35

Description. Medium-sized tree frog (snout-vent length of males about 39 mm, females 54 mm). Snout pointed, strongly projecting in profile. Tympanum distinct. Finger tips expanded into broad discs, inner one smaller but distinct. Skin smooth above, granular below. Throat smooth. A fringe of skin on outer finger reaches elbow, another along outer toe to tarsus forming a free flap, and a small transverse flap below vent. Colour of dorsal surface variable from pale green to orange-brown, speckled with very fine blue-black dots. Upper arm orange-yellow, outermost finger and toe greyish, with or without a dark patch on each side behind arm, followed by a small round spot. Sides, belly and undersurface of thighs, arms and throat yellow. All finger (except outermost) and finger discs yellow. Web between toes orange-red. (Amphibia. my 2009)

Habitat and Ecology. It is an arboreal species known from closed-canopy evergreen forest, forest edge, and bamboo in lowland and montane rainforest areas. It breeds by larval development in rain pools and standing water in streams in forest. Foam nests are created on tree branches overhanging shallow moving water. It sometimes also occurs in orchards and cultivated areas. (Ohler et al., 2004)

 

Distribution. In Bangladesh, Sarker and Sarker (1988) mentioned its possible presence. Chakma (2007) confirmed its occurrence in hill forests (Chittagong and Sylhet). Elsewher. China, India, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand (Ohler et al., 2004).

35. Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1858

English name. Large Tree Frog [Yellow-spotted Tree Frog]. Local name. Boro Gecho Bang.

 36

Description. Large tree frog (snout-vent length about 100 mm). Head large with rounded snout. Tympanum and supratympanic fold very distinct. Fingers almost entirely webbed. Upper part and web between 3rd and 4th fingers green. Toes fully webbed. Phalanges of fingers and toes form a ridge; each disc bears a V-shaped groove. Dorsal surface of body and flanks green, ventral surface white. Skin smooth on above. Part of under thighs and belly granulated. Sides of belly and hinder sides of thighs often suffused with purplish. Male with an internal vocal sac. (Boulenger, 1890).

Habitat and Ecology. It inhabits lowland to submontane moist evergreen forest. It makes foam nests above pools and ponds. outside the breeding season it lives high in the canopy. (Shunqing et al., 2004). No information is available on its breeding habits.

Distribution. In Bangladesh, the first confirmed record of this tree frog was made by Chakma (2009) from Sylhet division (Harinchara tea estate of Sreemangal ). Elsewhere. ? Bhutan, China, India, ?Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand (Shunqing et al., 2004). 

More amphibian species to be confirmed (found in list of various authors)

Species

Source(s) and Distribution

Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Günther, 1864) “found in Bangladesh at elevations of 2000-3500 m”_ Frost, 2009
Pedostibes kempi (Boulenger, 1919) Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India_ Frost, 2009
Limnonectes laticeps (Boulenger, 1882) Bangladesh_IUCN, 2009
Uperodon systoma (Schneider, 1799) Bangladesh_AmphibiaWeb 2009; “presumably in western Bangladesh” _Frost, 2009; ?Bangladesh_IUCN, 2009
Amolops formosus (Günther, 1876) “northern Bangladesh”_ Frost, 2009; IUCN, 2009
Hylarana erythraea (Schlegel, 1837) Bangladesh” _Frost, 2009
Polypedates taeniatus (Boulenger, 1906) Bangladesh” _Frost, 2009; AmphibiaWeb 2009; IUCN, 2009
Fejervarya frithi (Theobald, 1868) Bangladesh_IUCN, 2009; AmphibiaWeb, 2009 [endemic to Bangladesh, known only from Jessore]
Sphaerotheca breviceps (Schneider, 1799) “presumably in Bangladesh”_Frost 2009; ?Bangladesh_IUCN, 2009
Philautus jerdonii (Günther, 1876) Bangladesh_ AmphibiaWeb, 2009

 

References :

  1. Amit Dutta. 2009. Common Tree Frog (Polypedates leucomystax). http://www.amitdutta.com/photo/index.php (accessed 30 September 2009).
  2. Amphibia.my 2009 Amphibians and reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia. http://www.amphibia.my/page.php?pageid=s_foundk&s_id=77&search1=Hylarana%20nigrovittata&species=Hylarana%20nigrovittata&submit=Search!#
  3. Amphibia.my 2009 Amphibians and reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia. http://www.amphibia.my/page.php?pageid=s_foundk&s_id=94&search1=Rhacophorus%20bipunctatus&species=Rhacophorus%20bipunctatus&submit=Search!#
  4. Amphibia.my 2009. Amphibians and reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia. http://www.amphibia.my/page.php?pageid=s_foundk&s_id=38&search1=Microhyla%20berdmorei&species=Microhyla%20berdmorei&submit=Search!# (accessed on 16 September 2009)
  5. Amphibia.my 2009. Amphibians and reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia. http://www.amphibia.my/page.php?pageid=s_foundk&s_id=50&search1=Fejervarya%20cancrivora&species=Fejervarya%20cancrivora&submit=Search!
  6. AmphibiaWeb. 2003. Information on amphibian biology and conservation. Berkeley California. Available: http://amphibiaweb.org/.
  7. AmphibiaWeb. 2009. Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: http://amphibiaweb.org/. (accessed 28 August 2009).
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